Dr. Andrew Toole is the Deputy Chief Economist at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and a Research Associate at the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW). Andrew Toole joined the USPTO with experience in the private sector, academia, and government. While completing his PhD in economics at Michigan State University, Dr. Toole was a Senior Economist for Laurits R. Christensen Associates where he conducted studies on total factor productivity, cost and price analysis, and competitive strategy. In 1998, Dr. Toole went to Stanford University as a postdoctoral student before becoming a faculty member at Illinois State University and Rutgers University in New Jersey. As an academic researcher, Andrew Toole was asked to advise on science and technology policy issues for institutions such as the U.S. National Academies of Science, U.S. National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2010, he joined the Science Policy Branch of USDA’s Economic Research Service. His research focuses on the economics of innovation, intellectual property, and related science and technology policies. Dr. Toole has published in the Journal of Law and Economics, the Review of Economics and Statistics, Research Policy, Management Science, and many other peer-reviewed journals.